A Double Capture of Body and Life: Deleuze, Bacon, Sauka

This paper draws a comparison between the experiments with a double capture of body and life made by Francis Bacon (1909–92) and contemporary Lithuanian surrealist Šarūnas Sauka (b.1958) in their pictures. This comparison starts from the Deleuzian perspective. Deleuze was influenced by Antonin Artaud’s reflections on the body. In The Logic of Sense, Deleuze referred to Artaud’s text on the body without organs. Chapter 8 of Cinema 2: The Time-Image, “Cinema, Body and Brain,” starts with the following reflection: “Give me a body then: this is the formula of philosophical reversal. The body is no longer the obstacle that separates thought from itself, that which it has to overcome to reach thinking. It is on the contrary that which it plunges into or must plunge into, in order to reach the unthought, that is life.”

Describing Francis Bacon’s paintings, Deleuze writes about the meeting between Bacon and Artaud on the surface of the body without organs. Deleuze concludes that Bacon dismantles the organism in favour of the body, creating an “affective athleticism,” a scream-breath (Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation). His experiments with intersections between life and the body are also one of the main themes of Lithuanian surrealist painter Šarūnas Sauka. Sauka also paints the intensive fact of the body, experimenting with the body in various lines of flight. It is possible to encrust the jewel into different kinds of non-organic things, even in tissue, but what would it take to encrust the jewel into the organic body? The organic body encrusted with non-organic jewels on its surface becomes an animal without the distinctive features of a human face, but with animal limbs painted into the moment of copulation in the series of paintings.

Deleuze quotes Cézanne’s insight as an important point for connecting life to the arts. “Life provides many ambiguous approaches to the body without organs.” And the conclusion: “Life is frightening.” As one response to the frightening life in the arts, Deleuze describing Bacon’s pictures diagnoses hysteria as the symptomatic clinical essence of painting as art, because it is based on pure presence. Music does not have hysteria as its clinical essence, but it is confronted with galloping schizophrenia: it strips bodies of their inertia, of the materiality of  the presence; it disembodies bodies. In Sauka’s paintings one can  discern the same inspiration as Cezanne noticed: “Life is frightening.” But the painter overcomes the possible hysteria with the forces of irony and, most importantly, self-irony. It also escapes from itself, transforming itself into an animal’s body.

As Deleuze notices, following Beckett’s Characters and Bacon’s Figures escaping from the organism, the body escapes from itself. “It escapes from itself through the open mouth, through the anus or the stomach, or through the throat, or through the circle of the washbasin, or through the point of the umbrella.”

The head separated from the body is one of the main topics in Sauka’s experimentation with a body. In his early picture Self-Portrait No. 4 (1985), the decapitated head of the artist with one eye gazes into the spectators’ eyes. Deleuze reflected upon this phenomena of split body and, following Bacon’s reflections, described it as internal and external “autoscopia,” meaning the feeling that “it is no longer my head, but I feel myself inside a head, I see and I see myself inside a head; or else I do not see myself in the mirror, but I feel myself in the body that I see, and I see myself in this naked body when I am dressed … and so forth” (Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation).

Space and Sensation: Zoé Degani’s Art of Pluralising Signs Onstage

This presentation assumes that “art thinks no less than philosophy, but it thinks through affects and percepts” (Deleuze and Guattari 1994, 66). Artists do not only think the world, but also necessarily create worlds. Analysing the creation process of Brazilian artist and set designer Zoé Degani, whose practice couples her work and life inextricably, this proposal intends to offer an insight into her universe and its many worlds.

Working in the south of Brazil, in a specific context where scarce funds and precarious theatres do not support a profession and from a genuine environmental consciousness, Degani has built a career pinching scraps, as well as necessarily reinventing skills. This particular way of creating and thinking her work, re-signifies objects exhausted by consumerist objectivity, impresses forces upon spaces, walls, floors and structures, thus revealing a molecular theatrical quality that escapes its specificity, composed in a visual and pictorial language. Furthermore, her work presents a proliferation of signs: radiographs, keys, dolls, basins (which are “urban shells” for this artist who grew up on a beach), chairs, flowers, and bandages, among other recurrent elements thought of as a personal casting of pieces. Throughout, from performance to sculpture, from installation art to video, from public space to the stage, those signs impel performers’ bodies to athleticism through scenic objects, most of the time built from materials with no further use. The violence of encountering requires from her audience an action of deciphering. For instance, in The Bath (a dance play deployed from an already plural installation art), a giant tube was both the wave that danced with the performers putting their bodies at risk, as well as the presentification of the dry tubes from a civilisation without water. Although the object sustains a representational role and is what it actually is, its presence is more powerful than its meaning. Spectators (witnesses) sitting on tons of coarse salt experience the feeling of dryness: the lack of water is made actual through spatial sensations, not the representation of an illusion.

Degani’s signs go beyond semiology. Although a reading can be traced, they are a force opposing referentiality. In a complex arrangement of the visual and the manual, coupling the imagery and structural, bodies and objects, the undeniable concreteness of the material and the whole possibilities of its derivations, her compositions have a precise maths, physics, and geometry in their making as well as a thrust of human sensation. Before helping a character on stage, Degani’s pieces make the human figure appear: they are prosthesis or machines to athleticism, they put bodies in a state of becoming. Through manipulating places and creating objects, the “saturation of every atom” is noted as a composing operation. An example is the spatial composition for The Lesson (Ionesco), which works as the student’s suffering, allowing it to fit in a mutilated doll, in a torture chair; the space, more than representing oppression, was its real configuration, through columns dressed in corsets, through the children’s heads stuck inside a blackboard. This material operations cross scenes, resign dancer’s movements, relativise dramatic texts, and pluralise sensations. There are layers of reading, of composing, of signs. Out of the stage, which depicts a public space fixed under an overpass, The Sky, is a visual composition crossing real life, clouds contradicting concreteness. ‘In her “previous-scenic” work, the triad life-death-rebirth was a frequent theme bringing to surface the inevitable passage of time. After all, what this oeuvre do is to take the present from all representation.


Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. 2004. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Brian Massumi. London: Continuum.