Art and Knowledge at the Interstices

Mika Hannula (Hannula, Suoranta, and Vadén 2005) highlights the uncertainty surrounding artistic research: because its results are hard to evaluate, its contribution to scientific or academic knowledge remains questionable and problematic. This paper will draw on the work of Deleuze and Guattari to validate the notion of artistic research. It will deploy such concepts as “becoming,” “rhizomatics,” and “dramatisation” to show that artistic knowledge is by no means problematic but, on the contrary, can in certain cases call into question the legitimacy of academic and scientific knowledge itself.

Take Esther Shalev-Gerz’s research project Trust and the Unfolding Dialogue (2013) (see Bowman 2015). For the Lithuanian-French artist, a work of art is the ultimate expression of trust: by believing that an artwork speaks about itself and the world around us, the spectator opens up a space of trust that allows dialogue to unfold. Shalev-Gerz describes her research project as a kind of map in a Deleuzian and Guattarian sense, in that it depicts the space opening up between these two notions connected by the “and.” She further stresses that this field is far from stable and embodies a particular Deleuzian state of becoming—that is, as situated between heterogeneous terms and as eschewing any particular goal. Deleuzian concepts provide a theoretical justification and context for Shalev-Gerz’s project, which generates an interstitial form of knowledge—a kind of insight or intuitive understanding that constitutes the basis of knowledge yet is disregarded by traditional research.

Whereas Shalev-Gerz foregrounds the indeterminacy of her research, the work of Japanese artist Yutaka Makino engages with the Deleuzian concepts of heterogeneity and difference. In his sound installation/performance Atmosphere (2012), continuously modulating sounds delineate different sound environments in the gallery space. Exhibiting continual differentiation with respect to one another, these sound environments eschew all reference to an underlying system or score, thereby displaying real difference as opposed to adherence to a norm. In this and other works, Makino closes the gap between concepts and sensory experience pried open by traditional research: by using the technique of dramatisation, he enables the relations between sound and space to be felt as well as known.

Finally, Welsh artist Bethan Huws (2015) carries out in-depth research on Marcel Duchamp that she incorporates in her artworks and exhibitions. Lacking a conceptual framework or “official” points of reference, her work can be viewed in terms of rhizomatics, understood as a non-hierarchical system lacking organising principles. At the same time, however, her meticulous investigations and perspicacious analyses blur the boundaries between artistic and scholarly art-historical research.

Further examples will explore the concept of metamodelling, defined as a means of juxtaposing a variety of models without privileging any one of them. It too can be used to challenge accepted definitions of knowledge, and validate the purposive indeterminacy characterising artistic research.


Bowman, Jason E., ed. 2013. Esther Shalev-Gerz: The Contemporary Art of Trusting Uncertainties and Unfolding Dialogues. Stockholm: Art and Theory.

Hannula, Mika, Juha Suoranta, and Tere Vadén. 2005. Artistic Research: Theories, Methods and Practices. Helsinki: Academy of Fine Arts.

Huws, Betham. 2015. Reading Duchamp: Research Notes 2007–2014. Cologne: Walther König.

Makino, Yutaka. 2012. Athmosphere [performance-installation]. Accessed 15 October 2015.

Duchamp’s Art Coefficient: The Dark Precursor at Work

The aim of this presentation is to introduce a definition of artistic research derived from the historical tradition of modern art. Further, it will show how Deleuze’s concept of the “dark precursor” is both a development and an affirmation of the metaphysics that underpins that tradition.

Modern art metaphysics, first outlined by Nietzsche in The Birth of Tragedy, conceives the artist as a medium that translates into concrete form the experiences gained during and after a supra-subjective and supra-historical state. In this condition, a non-personal force manifests itself to the artist during a breakdown of the principium individuationis. On the return from this breakdown, difference becomes present and shows the artists the process by which the World of beings emerges out of Oneness.

The artist is then free to engage difference and produce completely new entities as a way to differentiate the One. However, difference continues manifesting itself in the way the artist’s will cannot be translated identically into material form. Duchamp called this difference the “art coefficient” of a work of art (“The Creative Act,” 1957). He referred to it as the difference between what an artist intends to express with what the artist actually realises in a work of art—“an arithmetical relation between the unexpressed but intended and the unintentionally expressed.”

Duchamp conceived the work to reduce the art coefficient as a struggle carried out by the artist guided by “pure intuition,” which he described as a mediumistic capacity that is beyond conscience. Following Deleuze, it is possible to think of Duchamp’s intuition as a dark precursor that by opening paths of potential communication attempts to break down the difference between a possible series and its actualisation in the external world. As an exploring flash that out of the darkness of “the labyrinth beyond space and time seeks a way out to a clearing”—as Duchamp described intuition—the dark precursor makes its final discharge in the concrete work of art. Conceived as part of the process of eternal recurrence, the struggle to actualise a possible series is in reality the struggle for the return—through the artist-medium—of a series of images that have existed before in the infinity of time. The Same returns but as it emerges into material form it can never be identical to what the artist has intuitively grasped beyond space and time.

Artistic research relies on Duchamp’s “art coefficient.” Artistic research is the struggle made by artists in the search for the formal solutions that will reduce the difference between what the artist has perceived through intuition as an explorative lightning, and what is finally actualised. Artistic research is the launching of an artist’s dark precursor that, struggling back and forth through knowledge fields and formal series, seeks to link an image from circular time with a series of multiple presents, forcing the image’s eternal return as the Same but totally different. The dark precursor seeks to link through the maximum of difference the two pre-existing series, that of circular time and that of its tangent, the straight line of pure time that creates the paradox of the present. Artistic research as the launching of the dark precursor amplifies the difference between an object, even between knowledge, with itself. “Nietzsche’s eternal Return, neurasthenic / form of a / repetition in succession to infinity” (Duchamp 1983). Finally, in the artist’s effort, the art coefficient is never reduced to zero because at one point the “invisible precursor conceals itself” and takes over the operation of transubstantiation of the in-itself, an operation in which the artist no longer plays a part.


Duchamp, Marcel. 1975. The Essential Writings of Marcel Duchamp. Edited by Michel Sanouillet and Elmer Peterson. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.

—. 1983. Marcel Duchamp: Notes. Edited and translated by Paul Matisse. Boston: G. K. Hall.

Beside the Point: Where the In-Act of Activism Lurks

Thunderbolts explode between different intensities, but they are preceded by an invisible, imperceptible dark precursor, which determines their path in advance but in reverse, as though intagliated.
Gilles Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, London and New York: Continuum, 1994, 119.

The problem is determined by singular points which correspond to series, but the question, by an aleatory point which corresponds to an empty square on the mobile element.
Gilles Deleuze, The Logic of Sense. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990, 56.

The possible implies becoming—the passage from one to the other takes place in the infra-thin.
Marcel Duchamp, Notes. Edited and translated by Paul Matisse. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983, 22.

In this paper, I will explore the force of seriality of the “infrathin,” a concept brought forth by Marcel Duchamp, in light of the notions of both the dark precursor and the aleatory point. Considering the complex durations at the heart of activist practice (from the emergency of the moment to the deadlock of burnout and depression), I will inquire into the ways in which an ethico-aesthetic practice can reorient the thought of the political at the heart of the act.