Fluxus Affects of Indeterminacy: An Aleatory Point Between Art and Philosophy

Deleuze is interested in exploring the dark night, the outside of thought. He addresses the emergence of thought itself, the event whereby sense is wrested from a mute, immanent field of sensibility: “that blind, acephalic, aphasic and aleatory original point which designates ‘the impossibility of thinking that is thought,’ that point where ‘powerlessness’ is transmuted into power” (Deleuze 1999, 199). This event occurs when something forces our faculties to communicate their intensive differences between one another, producing a “phenomenal flash”: the sudden shock of sensation (ibid., 30/20). This event of thought is provoked rather than internally generated, and it is provoked by the “dark precursor”—the being of the sensible. For Deleuze, provocation of thought is an ethical imperative, yet the dark precursor is dark in relation to thought, to which it is imperceptible, unthinkable (ibid., 236–37); this is the paradox of thinking about that which cannot be thought. Our claim is that to “think” this event means to change the nature of thought, to think affectively. This is why we are particularly interested in the idea of art as a kind of thinking—a thinking by and through the intensification of affect. We are interested in the creation of new affects that have a potential to change the flows and cadences of present configurations, and in amplifying affects that contribute to or engender a sensitivity to the immanent intensive and affective processes that condition thought. Whereas thought cannot directly apprehend the dark precursor, artistic affects can usher us toward an experience that more closely resembles the intensive level at which it operates. Given that the dark precursor is both pure disparity and the absolutely indeterminate, we are particularly interested in affects of indeterminacy as possibly contributing to this sensitivity. This is particularly important for our interest in the performances of the neo-avant-garde art collective Fluxus, which creates new affective spaces by merging the artist and audience, generating the indeterminate performance. The question we wish to develop is, what do Fluxus affects do? Preliminarily, we propose that Fluxus performances are paradigmatic of resistance and mobility, providing a model of the becoming of thought and providing an affective encounter with indeterminacy.

This presentation will focus on the early musical performance of Phillip Corner’s Piano Activities (Wiesbaden, 1962) and the later performance of Dick Higgins’s Danger Music as examples of two signature features of Fluxus “score events”: the integration of chance and contingency and an intentional liberation of affective potentials through the deconstruction of traditional assumptions of the nature of the art genre itself. Both of these features are integral to developing what I am calling the “affect of indeterminacy,” which could serve as a visceral experience to bridge the gap between the dark precursor as a theoretical construct and what Deleuze truly would like us to understand—the affective power of the dark precursor as a transformative moment. Art does not provide a theoretical application, but enacts the real provocation of thought.


Deleuze, Gilles. 1999. Difference and Repetition. Translated by Paul Patton. London: Athlone Press.

Space and Sensation: Zoé Degani’s Art of Pluralising Signs Onstage

This presentation assumes that “art thinks no less than philosophy, but it thinks through affects and percepts” (Deleuze and Guattari 1994, 66). Artists do not only think the world, but also necessarily create worlds. Analysing the creation process of Brazilian artist and set designer Zoé Degani, whose practice couples her work and life inextricably, this proposal intends to offer an insight into her universe and its many worlds.

Working in the south of Brazil, in a specific context where scarce funds and precarious theatres do not support a profession and from a genuine environmental consciousness, Degani has built a career pinching scraps, as well as necessarily reinventing skills. This particular way of creating and thinking her work, re-signifies objects exhausted by consumerist objectivity, impresses forces upon spaces, walls, floors and structures, thus revealing a molecular theatrical quality that escapes its specificity, composed in a visual and pictorial language. Furthermore, her work presents a proliferation of signs: radiographs, keys, dolls, basins (which are “urban shells” for this artist who grew up on a beach), chairs, flowers, and bandages, among other recurrent elements thought of as a personal casting of pieces. Throughout, from performance to sculpture, from installation art to video, from public space to the stage, those signs impel performers’ bodies to athleticism through scenic objects, most of the time built from materials with no further use. The violence of encountering requires from her audience an action of deciphering. For instance, in The Bath (a dance play deployed from an already plural installation art), a giant tube was both the wave that danced with the performers putting their bodies at risk, as well as the presentification of the dry tubes from a civilisation without water. Although the object sustains a representational role and is what it actually is, its presence is more powerful than its meaning. Spectators (witnesses) sitting on tons of coarse salt experience the feeling of dryness: the lack of water is made actual through spatial sensations, not the representation of an illusion.

Degani’s signs go beyond semiology. Although a reading can be traced, they are a force opposing referentiality. In a complex arrangement of the visual and the manual, coupling the imagery and structural, bodies and objects, the undeniable concreteness of the material and the whole possibilities of its derivations, her compositions have a precise maths, physics, and geometry in their making as well as a thrust of human sensation. Before helping a character on stage, Degani’s pieces make the human figure appear: they are prosthesis or machines to athleticism, they put bodies in a state of becoming. Through manipulating places and creating objects, the “saturation of every atom” is noted as a composing operation. An example is the spatial composition for The Lesson (Ionesco), which works as the student’s suffering, allowing it to fit in a mutilated doll, in a torture chair; the space, more than representing oppression, was its real configuration, through columns dressed in corsets, through the children’s heads stuck inside a blackboard. This material operations cross scenes, resign dancer’s movements, relativise dramatic texts, and pluralise sensations. There are layers of reading, of composing, of signs. Out of the stage, which depicts a public space fixed under an overpass, The Sky, is a visual composition crossing real life, clouds contradicting concreteness. ‘In her “previous-scenic” work, the triad life-death-rebirth was a frequent theme bringing to surface the inevitable passage of time. After all, what this oeuvre do is to take the present from all representation.


Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. 2004. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Brian Massumi. London: Continuum.